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Resveratrol is a naturally occurring antioxidant found in red wine and grapes. Antioxidants help to protect the body from free radical damage associated with old age and disease.
Resveratrol is a naturally occuring antioxidant found in red wine and grapes. Antioxidants help to protect the bodey from free radical damage associated with old age and disease.
Suggested Dosage Resveratrol tablets
Adults – Take 1-2 tablets twice daily as a dietary supplement or as professionally advised.
Store in a cool and dry place below 30°C, away from direct sunlight & children.
The shelf life of Resveratrol is approximately 2 years.
A History of Resveratrol
From recent research, it seems that man has been aware of the powers of Resveratrol for a long time. First discovered in the 1940’s in a variety of Japanese and Chinese roots, these roots were dried and used for medicinal purposes. Various skin problems such as athlete’s foot were treated with these dried root products.
In about 1976, researchers found Resveratrol in the skin and seeds of grapes. The flesh does not have Resveratrol. According to one researcher, fresh grape skins contain 50-100 mg Resveratrol per gram, and the concentration in wine ranges from 0.2 mg/l to 7.7 mg/l. As you can see there is a wide range of concentration of Resveratrol in the different varieties of grapes and the resulting wines.
Research on the benefits of Resveratrol came about because of the French Paradox. The French Paradox is the relationship between the drinking of wine in France and the low incidents of cardiovascular problems among the French population. This effect has been attributed to the Resveratrol found in Red Wine.
Resveratrol, a natural component of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae), is abundant in the skin of grapes and in the leaf epidermis and present in wines, especially red wines. It is a polyphenol found in the skin and seeds of grapes, berries, peanuts and other foods.
In in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments, resveratrol exhibits a number of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, platelet antiaggregatory and anti-carcinogenic properties, and modulation of lipoprotein metabolism. Some of these activities have been implicated in the cardiovascular protective effects attributed to resveratrol and to red wine.
Prior to 2002, there had been no previous studies describing the potential effects of resveratrol on the lifespan extension. However, in the last 5 years, several researchers have reported that resveratrol is a potent activator of sirtuin enzymatic activity, mimics the beneficial effects of caloric restriction, retards the aging process and increases longevity in a number of organisms from different phyla such as yeasts, worms, flies and short-lived fish.
In addition, resveratrol seems to be effective in delaying the onset of a variety of age-related diseases in mammals, such as rodents. Therefore, it is possible that resveratrol may play a role in extending life duration and on some of the mechanisms by which resveratrol may act as an anti-aging agent.
Resveratrol in high doses has been shown to extend lifespan in some studies in invertebrates and to prevent early mortality in mice fed a high-fat diet. In a study, US researchers examined the effect of low dose of dietary resveratrol and a calorie restricted (CR) diet on the lifespan of mice. They fed mice from middle age (14-months) to old age (30-months) either a control diet, a low dose of resveratrol, or a CR diet and examined genome-wide transcriptional profiles.
The researchers reported a striking transcriptional overlap of CR and resveratrol in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibited gene expression profiles associated with cardiac and skeletal muscle aging, and prevented age-related cardiac dysfunction. Dietary resveratrol also mimicked the effects of CR in insulin mediated glucose uptake in muscle.
Gene expression profiling suggested that both CR and resveratrol might retard some aspects of aging through alterations in chromatin structure and transcription. Resveratrol, at doses that could be readily achieved in humans, was demonstrated to fulfil the definition of a dietary compound that mimicked some aspects of CR and retarded some aging parameters.
Resveratrol also possesses chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties and has been shown to increase lifespan in yeast and metazoans, including mice. Genetic evidence and in vitro enzymatic measurements indicate that the deacetylase Sir2/SIRT1, an enzyme promoting stress resistance and aging, is the target of resveratrol. Similarly, down-regulation of insulin-like pathways, of which PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) is a key mediator, promotes longevity and is an attractive strategy to fight cancer.
In France, Fröjdö S. et al showed that resveratrol inhibited, in vitro and in cultured muscle cell lines, class IA PI3K and its downstream signalling at the same concentration range at which it activated sirtuins. The observations defined class IA PI3K as a target of resveratrol that might contribute to the longevity-promoting and anticancer properties, and identified resveratrol as a natural class-specific PI3K inhibitor.
In the 1997 study reported in the journal Science, resveratrol was found to exhibit major inhibitory activity against cancer initiation, promotion and progression. Specifically, its antioxidant and anti-mutagenic potency and induction of phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes were seen as counter to carcinogenic initiation.
Resveratrol hindered cyclooxygenase and hydroperoxidase and initiated antiinflammatory effects, thereby demonstrating anti-promotion activity. The induction of human promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation by resveratrol also thwarted the progress of carcinogenic activity. In addition, resveratrol demonstrated significant inhibitory effects in vitro with carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions in mouse mammary glands, and in vivo with tumorigenesis in the two-stage mouse skin cancer model. The data suggest that resveratrol, a common constituent of the human diet, may be used as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent in humans.
Because of lack of early diagnosis and poor therapeutic responsiveness, median survival in patients with pancreatic cancer is less than 6 months, and survival beyond 5 years is rare. Thus, a novel dimension in chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer would be beneficial to control this metastatic disease. The effect of resveratrol in pancreatic cancer was investigated at Northwestern University Medical School in USA. The potential role of resveratrol was evaluated on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation using two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and AsPC-1.
The result showed that resveratrol inhibited proliferation of both PANC-1 and AsPC-1. Cell number of both cancer cell lines was also significantly decreased following resveratrol treatment. The growth inhibition induced by resveratrol was accompanied by apoptotic morphologic changes, characterized by cell rounding and cell membrane blebbing suggesting apoptosis. The substantial apoptosis inducted by resveratrol on these two cell lines was confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay.
These findings suggest that resveratrol may have a potent anti-proliferative effect on human pancreatic cancer with induction of apoptosis. Hence resveratrol is likely to be valuable for the management and prevention of human pancreatic cancer.
In a published article in journal Nutrition, Japanese researchers found that resveratrol significantly reduced the tumour volume, tumour weight and metastasis to the lung in mice bearing highly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumours. In addition, resveratrol inhibited DNA synthesis most strongly in LLC cells, increased apoptosis in LLC cells, and decreased the S phase population. Resveratrol inhibited tumour-induced neovascularization in an in vivo model. Moreover, resveratrol significantly inhibited the formation of capillary-like tube formation from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and the binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to HUVEC.
The researchers suggest that the anti-tumour and anti-metastatic activities of resveratrol might be due to the inhibition of DNA synthesis in LLC cells and the inhibition of LLC-induced neovascularization and tube formation (angiogensis) of HUVEC by resveratrol.
Resveratrol has strong antioxidative properties that have been associated with the protective effects of red wine consumption against coronary heart disease, which is commonly known as “the French paradox”. In a Korean study, Jang J.H. and Surh Y.J. investigated the effects of resveratrol on betaamyloid- induced oxidative cell death in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. There has been compelling evidence supporting the idea that betaamyloid- induced cytotoxicity is mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs).
PC12 cells treated with beta-amyloid exhibited increased accumulation of intracellular ROI and underwent apoptotic death. Beta-amyloid treatment also led to the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-X(L) ratio, and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.
Resveratrol was found to attenuate cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and intracellular ROI formation. The polyphenol also thwarted other effects of the beta-amyloid peptide, which is believed to account for the plaques that are characteristic of brain tissue in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
In India, Palsamy P. and Subramanian S. carried out a study to evaluate the anti-diabetic properties of Resveratrol in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced experimental diabetes in rats. The diabetic rats orally treated with Resveratrol for 30 days resulted in significant decrease in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and diminished activities of pathophysiological enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase.
The anti-hyperglycemic nature of Resveratrol is also evidenced from the improvement in the levels of plasma insulin and haemoglobin. Further, the results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard anti-diabetic drug. Thus, these findings suggest that Resveratrol may be considered as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Many studies have shown that Resveratrol has anti-inflammatory properties, and it has been ascribed as having health benefits that help to prevent cancer and coronary heart disease. A treatment that combines anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions may be desirable for alleviating many skin conditions that range in severity.
Chan M.M., from Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Temple University School of Medicine in Philadelphia, evaluated the anti-microbial activity of resveratrol against bacteria and dermatophytes that are major etiologic agents of human skin infections. Resveratrol inhibited the growth of the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the activity against the fungal species Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum.
Thus, this study indicates a novel application for resveratrol, a molecule of plant defense, to combat human fungal pathogens. Resveratrol may have wide application to skin conditions and may also have promising clinical potentials in diabetic wounds.
In summary, Resveratrol, a naturally occurring antioxidant primarily found in red wine and grapes, exhibits a number of biological activities in human body. These include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumour, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-microbial, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Resveratrol may also mimic the effects of calorie restriction and retard the aspects of aging.
Together with grape seed and red wine, Resveratrol is a potent antioxidant boost, which helps to protect the body against free radical damage that is normally associated with premature aging and disease. It also supports a healthy cardiovascular and immune system for optimal wellness.
Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumour, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-microbial, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Resveratrol may also mimic the effects of calorie restriction and retard the aspects of aging. Together with grape seed and red wine, Resveratrol is a potent antioxidant boost, which helps to protect the body against free radical damage that is normally associated with premature aging and disease. It also supports a healthy cardiovascular and immune system for optimal wellness.
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